Biodiversity - Living Planet Report 2018

UN Report: Nature’s Dangerous Decline ‘Unprecedented’; Species Extinction Rates ‘Accelerating’

PARIS, 6 May – Nature is declining globally at rates unprecedented in human history – và the rate of species extinctions is accelerating, with grave impacts on people around the world now likely, warns a landmark new report from the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity & Ecosystem Services (IPBES), the summary of which was approved at the 7th session of the IPBES Plenary, meeting last week (29 April – 4 May) in Paris.

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“The overwhelming evidence of the IPBES Global Assessment, from a wide range of different fields of knowledge, presents an ominous picture,” said IPBES Chair, Sir Robert Watson. “The health of ecosystems on which we and all other species depend is deteriorating more rapidly than ever. We are eroding the very foundations of our economies, livelihoods, food security, health and unique of life worldwide.”

“The Report also tells us that it is not too late to lớn make a difference, but only if we start now at every màn chơi from local khổng lồ global,” he said. “Through ‘transformative change’, nature can still be conserved, restored and used sustainably – this is also key to meeting most other global goals. By transformative change, we mean a fundamental, system-wide reorganization across technological, economic & social factors, including paradigms, goals and values.”

“The thành viên States of IPBES Plenary have now acknowledged that, by its very nature, transformative change can expect opposition from those with interests vested in the status quo, but also that such opposition can be overcome for the broader public good,” Watson said.

The IPBES Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services is the most comprehensive ever completed. It is the first intergovernmental Report of its kind and builds on the landmark Millennium Ecosystem Assessment of 2005, introducing innovative ways of evaluating evidence.

Compiled by 145 expert authors from 50 countries over the past three years, with inputs from another 310 contributing authors, the Report assesses changes over the past five decades, providing a comprehensive picture of the relationship between economic development pathways và their impacts on nature. It also offers a range of possible scenarios for the coming decades.

Based on the systematic review of about 15,000 scientific và government sources, the Report also draws (for the first time ever at this scale) on indigenous và local knowledge, particularly addressing issues relevant to Indigenous Peoples và Local Communities.

“Biodiversity and nature’s contributions khổng lồ people are our common heritage và humanity’s most important life-supporting ‘safety net’. But our safety net is stretched almost lớn breaking point,” said Prof. Sandra Díaz (Argentina), who co-chaired the Assessment with Prof. Josef Settele (Germany) và Prof. Eduardo S. Brondízio (Brazil và USA). 

“The diversity within species, between species và of ecosystems, as well as many fundamental contributions we derive from nature, are declining fast, although we still have the means khổng lồ ensure a sustainable future for people and the planet.”

The Report finds that around 1 million animal & plant species are now threatened with extinction, many within decades, more than ever before in human history. 

The average abundance of native species in most major land-based habitats has fallen by at least 20%, mostly since 1900. More than 40% of amphibian species, almost 33% of reef-forming corals & more than a third of all marine mammals are threatened. The picture is less clear for insect species, but available evidence supports a tentative estimate of 10% being threatened. At least 680 vertebrate species had been driven to extinction since the 16th century & more than 9% of all domesticated breeds of mammals used for food & agriculture had become extinct by 2016, with at least 1,000 more breeds still threatened.

“Ecosystems, species, wild populations, local varieties & breeds of domesticated plants & animals are shrinking, deteriorating or vanishing. The essential, interconnected website of life on Earth is getting smaller & increasingly frayed,” said Prof. Settele. “This loss is a direct result of human activity & constitutes a direct threat to human well-being in all regions of the world.”

To increase the policy-relevance of the Report, the assessment’s authors have ranked, for the first time at this scale and based on a thorough analysis of the available evidence, the five direct drivers of change in nature with the largest relative global impacts so far. These culprits are, in descending order: (1) changes in land và sea use; (2) direct exploitation of organisms; (3) climate change; (4) pollution & (5) invasive alien species.

The Report notes that, since 1980, greenhouse gas emissions have doubled, raising average global temperatures by at least 0.7 degrees Celsius – with climate change already impacting nature from the màn chơi of ecosystems to that of genetics – impacts expected to lớn increase over the coming decades, in some cases surpassing the impact of land and sea use change and other drivers.

Despite progress khổng lồ conserve nature và implement policies, the Report also finds that global goals for conserving và sustainably using nature và achieving sustainability cannot be met by current trajectories, and goals for 2030 & beyond may only be achieved through transformative changes across economic, social, political & technological factors. With good progress on components of only four of the đôi mươi Aichi Biodiversity Targets, it is likely that most will be missed by the 2020 deadline. Current negative trends in biodiversity & ecosystems will undermine progress towards 80% (35 out of 44) of the assessed targets of the Sustainable Development Goals, related to poverty, hunger, health, water, cities, climate, oceans and land (SDGs 1, 2, 3, 6, 11, 13, 14 và 15). Loss of biodiversity is therefore shown to lớn be not only an environmental issue, but also a developmental, economic, security, social và moral issue as well.

“To better understand and, more importantly, to address the main causes of damage khổng lồ biodiversity and nature’s contributions to lớn people, we need lớn understand the history and global interconnection of complex demographic & economic indirect drivers of change, as well as the social values that underpin them,” said Prof. Brondízio. “Key indirect drivers include increased population & per capita consumption; technological innovation, which in some cases has lowered and in other cases increased the damage khổng lồ nature; and, critically, issues of governance và accountability. A pattern that emerges is one of global interconnectivity và ‘telecoupling’ – with resource extraction & production often occurring in one part of the world lớn satisfy the needs of distant consumers in other regions.”

Other notable findings of the Report include:

Three-quarters of the land-based environment and about 66% of the marine environment have been significantly altered by human actions. On average these trends have been less severe or avoided in areas held or managed by Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities.More than a third of the world’s land surface & nearly 75% of freshwater resources are now devoted lớn crop or livestock production.The value of agricultural crop production has increased by about 300% since 1970, raw timber harvest has risen by 45% & approximately 60 billion tons of renewable và nonrenewable resources are now extracted globally every year – having nearly doubled since 1980.
Land degradation has reduced the productivity of 23% of the global land surface, up lớn US$577 billion in annual global crops are at risk from pollinator loss & 100-300 million people are at increased risk of floods & hurricanes because of loss of coastal habitats and protection.In 2015, 33% of marine fish stocks were being harvested at unsustainable levels; 60% were maximally sustainably fished, with just 7% harvested at levels lower than what can be sustainably fished.Urban areas have more than doubled since 1992.Plastic pollution has increased tenfold since 1980, 300-400 million tons of heavy metals, solvents, toxic sludge & other wastes from industrial facilities are dumped annually into the world’s waters, & fertilizers entering coastal ecosystems have produced more than 400 ocean ‘dead zones’, totalling more than 245,000 km2 (591-595) – a combined area greater than that of the United Kingdom.
Negative trends in nature will continue to 2050 & beyond in all of the policy scenarios explored in the Report, except those that include transformative change – due khổng lồ the projected impacts of increasing land-use change, exploitation of organisms & climate change, although with significant differences between regions.

The Report also presents a wide range of illustrative actions for sustainability và pathways for achieving them across & between sectors such as agriculture, forestry, marine systems, freshwater systems, urban areas, energy, finance and many others. It highlights the importance of, among others, adopting integrated management & cross-sectoral approaches that take into account the trade-offs of food and energy production, infrastructure, freshwater & coastal management, và biodiversity conservation.

Also identified as a key element of more sustainable future policies is the evolution of global financial & economic systems khổng lồ build a global sustainable economy, steering away from the current limited paradigm of economic growth.

“IPBES presents the authoritative science, knowledge and the policy options to decision-makers for their consideration,” said IPBES Executive Secretary, Dr. Anne Larigauderie. “We thank the hundreds of experts, from around the world, who have volunteered their time và knowledge to lớn help address the loss of species, ecosystems & genetic diversity – a truly global và generational threat lớn human well-being.”

Biodiversity is a cornerstone of development, and its loss threatens many hard-won development gains. Biodiversity blunts the impact of other crises, like climate change và conflict, on development; it is also the wealth of poor nations and poor communities within nations as a producer of jobs và GDP. For example, in the fisheries sector, 60 million jobs globally are tied directly to fishing and fish farming. For every one of those jobs, 2.5 more are created in the fisheries value chain. That is 200 million jobs, 60 percent of which are in the developing world. The same can be said for industries such as forestry & nature-based tourism.

The value of biodiversity goes beyond the variety of living organisms, và also includes the services provided by healthy ecosystems - such as wild pollination, provision of food from marine fisheries, & timber from native forests. To capture this broader concept, we refer to nature, rather than biodiversity alone.

And around the world, nature is vanishing at an unprecedented rate & scale. The poorest economies stand to thảm bại the most in relative terms from nature loss, which puts at risk their prospects khổng lồ grow out of poverty. World ngân hàng modelling shows that in a scenario where just a few ecosystem services –– collapse, low-income countries could forego 10 percent in real GDP annually by 2030, compared with global losses of 2.3 percent. Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia could see annual drops of 9.7 & 6.5 percent, relative to lớn a no tipping point scenario.

The most vulnerable communities may be most at risk too - 80 percent of the global population live below the poverty line lives in rural areas và tend to depend heavily on nature’s services. Without income from natural resources, poverty among smallholders in Latin America, South Asia, East Asia, và Sub-Saharan Africa would be higher. Healthy ecosystems prevent the descent of poor households into deeper poverty by providing food, water, & raw materials, and thus act a barrier against natural & man-made disasters & as a safety net during economic crises. The unfolding global food crisis, which threatens khổng lồ drive millions into extreme poverty, magnifying hunger và malnutrition, underlines nature’s vital role in food security.

Nature & climate are intertwined. Oceans, soils, forests, peatlands, and other ecosystems are the world’s largest carbon sinks, absorbing 60 percent of gross annual anthropogenic carbon emissions. A significant loss of these systems hinders our ability to mitigate và adapt to climate change. Conversely, climate change is one of the five direct drivers of nature loss, alongside land and sea use change, overexploitation, pollution, & invasive species. The impacts of climate change shift and shrink the critical habitats that species rely on, alter ecosystem functioning, & interact with other drivers of nature loss to weaken the resilience of ecosystems to natural shocks & man-made pressures.

Neither crisis can be addressed independently of the other. Net zero goals under the Paris Agreement are not feasible without natural sequestration, which is why all Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) pathway models that limit global warming to lớn 1.5°C include actions khổng lồ conserve and restore nature. In turn, falling short on the global climate ambition will adversely impact ecosystems, even under a 1.5°C lớn 2°C warming scenario, compromising efforts lớn address biodiversity loss.

Nature loss is the result of market, policy, and institutional failures that are keeping economies on unsustainable development paths. For example, the volume of subsidies that are harmful lớn development is at least five lớn six times more the amount of funding devoted lớn protecting biodiversity. For this reason, conservation efforts alone are not sufficient to halt the global loss of nature.

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Investing in nature creates opportunities for high-value and greener growth. Shifting markets & value chains toward models that conserve & restore natural capital, and use it sustainably, can create long-term growth & greener & higher quality jobs, if measures are put in place for an equitable và inclusive transition. Strategic investment in protected areas can create opportunities for income diversification which support local economies. Leveraging these opportunities & bringing nature into rural and urban development planning is essential for setting economies on a green, resilient, and inclusive development path.

Last Updated:Apr 07, 2023


The World ngân hàng is supporting green, resilient, & inclusive development in client countries by mainstreaming nature considerations into economic policy, development programs, & strategic sectoral investments. The World ngân hàng deploys integrated financing solutions for the conservation và restoration of nature, supports institution-building, and develops tools & analytics that help provide evidence-based knowledge. Increasingly, attention is shifting to lớn economic sectors & policies beyond the purview of environmental ministries – for example, urban development, agriculture, disaster risk management, và water management - to address the drivers of nature loss and promote sustainable sector practices.

The World bank is committed to tư vấn countries adopt nature-smart development approaches that protect nature while ensuring it remains an engine for grow & jobs. As part of it, we stand ready to tư vấn the implementation of the supporting the implementation of the
Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) adopted in December 2022 at the 15th
Conference of the Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP-15). Our holistic, cross sector work already contributes lớn GBF ambitions across numerous goals and targets.

Support in three strategic areas can unlock impact at scale: integrating nature into countries’ development policies and strategic investments to attain a green, resilient, and inclusive development; scaling up finance in support of nature from all sources, including by ‘greening’ broader public và private finance; và better integrating investments in nature with those in climate change adaptation and mitigation.

Bringing nature at the center of green, resilient, & inclusive development in countries means defining how economic and financial incentives & regulations can better integrate longer-term sustainability considerations across sectors. This includes opportunities khổng lồ boost the economy and deliver positive environmental outcomes simultaneously through nature-based solutions. The modeling và analytical work on nature the World ngân hàng has developed provides insights on economic impacts of different policy scenarios, helping governments in this endeavor.

Recognizing, measuring, và managing natural capital và ecosystem services at the country level is key to protecting biodiversity. Natural capital should be considered an asset class on its own – otherwise we risk rolling back development gains. The
Changing Wealth of Nations 2021 reportfinds that renewable natural capital accounts for 23% of wealth in low-income countries and 10% in lower-middle-income countries.

More, better and more accessible finance is needed khổng lồ halt nature loss and support high-impact projects. The ngân hàng is the leading multilateral financier of biodiversity. It provides an array of financial tools to support biodiversity và ecosystems, from concessional IDA funds to lớn blending & innovative tools that contribute to mobilize more “green finance”. At the same time, it works khổng lồ develop new standards và provide data and decision-support tools for governments & financial institutions khổng lồ shed light on nature-related risks and opportunities is contributing to lớn “greening” global finance.

Nature is also at the bộ vi xử lý core of World bank Multi-donor Trust Funds, which strategically raise resources & concessional funds to lớn blend, de-risk, and pilot new financing financial instruments, & provide analytical foundations for investment in nature:

Nature is also being integrated into climate action. The World bank Group Climate Change kích hoạt Plan (CCAP) recognizes that a combined approach that addresses both climate và nature risks is needed. To help tackle these crises in tandem, the CCAP is stepping up investments in nature-based solutions & integrated management of ecosystems, và supporting development of wealth accounting, economy-ecosystem-climate modelling, as well as other efforts khổng lồ bridge the biodiversity financing gap. The Climate Change Development Reports (CCDRs) further look into synergies between nature, climate, và development. For instance, Ghana’s CCDR points to the benefits of xanh ecosystems to protect against the impacts of sea level increases.

Finally, given the complex liên kết between people and land, the World bank has adopted a more integrated landscape approach that simultaneously works on improving the resilience of both ecosystems & livelihoods. Through the
Environmental & Social Framework, the World ngân hàng screens all its investment projects under the lens of the standard on “biodiversity conservation & sustainable management of living resources,” applying a precautionary approach to lớn project design.

Last Updated:Apr 07, 2023

The World bank Group is the leading multilateral financier of biodiversity. In FY22, the Bank’s biodiversity portfolio was $2.8 billion, up from $1.9 billion in FY21, supporting more than 100 active projects with direct investments into nature.

In Indonesia, the World bank is supporting critical investments by the government in green, resilient, & inclusive development. The Sustainable Landscapes Management Program is supporting the government’s efforts to lớn reduce deforestation and forest degradation & promote equitable growth through land tenure reform, social forestry, and emissions reductions payments. The World Bank’s Sustainable Oceans Program is supporting the country’s transition to lớn a xanh economy. Oceans underpin the country’s prosperity - 70 percent of Indonesians live in coastal areas, over 50 percent of the country’s protein supply is derived from fisheries, và Indonesia’s ocean economy is worth over US$256 billion annually. Yet this natural capital is under threat from overfishing, marine plastic pollution, and coastal và urban development, which are resulting in degradation of critical ecosystems such as coral reefs and mangroves. These challenges are exacerbated high vulnerability khổng lồ climate change, which also - undermines coastal livelihoods. Building on a broad portfolio of investments and technical assistance, the World Bank-supported Mangroves for Coastal Resilience project aims khổng lồ rehabilitate 75,000 hectares of mangroves, while enhancing mangrove protection và strengthening coastal development opportunities.

In China, a government investment and US$380 million loan from the World ngân hàng will help address water scarcity & ecosystem degradation in the Yellow River basin, which supplies 160 million people with water và produces 26 percent of China’s GDP (2018 data). Water security is predicted khổng lồ become a major area of vulnerability due lớn climate change, especially in northern China, where availability could drop 24 percent by 2050. Ecosystem degradation makes matters worse, with a third of the river catchment suffering from soil erosion, which threatens land productivity and creates pollution. Smallholder farmers need tư vấn for adaption as they face potential yield losses and shifts in crop growing area; the World bank program will support basin màn chơi coordination, provincial-level ecological protection, và integrated water management, for an economically productive, ecologically sustainable, and climate-resilient Yellow River Basin. At the farm level, this means helping producers reduce pollution runoff và implement forest restoration, terracing, và water and soil conservation, among other sustainable practices. The program will further help restore habitats for 147 freshwater fish species, 27 of them endemic, & millions of waterbirds in the basin.

In Sri Lanka, the World ngân hàng is supporting the Road Development Authority’s effort to develop và roll out climate resilient road thiết kế standards, construction guidelines, & best practices for integrating nature-based solutions into road infrastructure. This will help protect roads from damage from erosion và landslides và reduce their negative impacts on biodiversity by improving habitat connectivity. The project will also help integrate bioengineering solutions and climate-resilient design into road improvements. More than 320,000 people will benefit from climate-resilient road access to markets, schools, & health facilities.

In Ethiopia the World Bank’s comprehensive program28 is scaling up the results of a successful decade-long effort by the government khổng lồ improve land management, helping khổng lồ reverse land degradation và restore critical ecosystem services. World bank investments have already brought 1.9 million hectares of watersheds in Ethiopian highlands under sustainable land management, benefiting 3.8 million people. By 2025, up lớn 4.5 million hectares are expected to lớn benefit from improved water & soil moisture và fertility management practices, while integrated agro-silvo-pastoral practices will boost agricultural productivity, climate resilience, & economic opportunities at the farm level across 7,900 micro watersheds. Land certification is another important element – the program has supported the issuance of 3.6 million land certificates, 2.3 million of them to lớn women.

In Grenada, Saint Lucia, và Saint Vincent & the Grenadines, the World ngân hàng is making multisectoral blue economy investments lớn strengthen resilience & create jobs, accelerating the post COVID-19 recovery. Growth and jobs in two critical sectors - tourism và fisheries - have been heavily constrained by COVID-19, which has complicated challenges related lớn high debt, climate change, và natural disasters. The project will identify previously untapped sustainable economic opportunities for small, semi- & industrial-scale fishing operators, and invest in coastal infrastructure và an emergency response mechanism benefiting 28,000 people. Lớn boost employment & productivity, it will also improve access to lớn finance for 75 micro-, small-, & medium-sized enterprises, 60 percent of which are women-owned or managed, in the tourism, fisheries, & waste management value chains.

The RESILAND World bank project in Tajikistan addresses the broad-based drivers of degradation, spanning multiple sectors in restoring và enhancing the management of 685,000 hectares of degraded forests, & shifting 83,000 hectares of farmland lớn integrated và community-based pasture management, and climate-smart cropping practices. RESILAND projects in Uzbekistan & Kazakhstan are also investing in the restoration of degraded forests và rangelands.

Examples of our financial innovation include the
Wildlife Conservation Bondlaunched in 2022 in tư vấn of South Africa’s efforts to lớn conserve the black rhino. The bond is an outcome-based financial instrument that channels investments to lớn achieve conservation outcomes – measured in this case by an increase in black rhino populations. Through the bond, investors tư vấn the financing of activities to protect và grow a critically endangered species with clear conservation targets, contributing directly to lớn biodiversity, và bringing jobs khổng lồ local communities through the creation of conservation-related employment in a rural & underserved region of South Africa.

Last Updated:Apr 07, 2023

Multi-stakeholder partnerships are an important aspect of the World Bank’s environmental engagement as they pool expertise, access, và resources. These partnerships comprise the public sector, private sector, multi-lateral organizations, & civil society to advance collective kích hoạt on some of the world’s most pressing biodiversity challenges.

The World ngân hàng is the lead agency of flagship programs co-funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF), helping convene partners, strengthen cooperation across countries and sectors, & amplify knowledge exchange. With $203 million GEF investment, the
Amazon Sustainable Landscapes Programis helping protect biodiversity và ecosystems and improve integrated landscape management in priority areas of the Amazon, with projects in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, and Suriname being co-implemented by diverse partners. The
Food Systems, Land Use and Restoration Impact Program (FOLUR)is a $345 million initiative that seeks to transform food & land use systems, with focus on commodities like cocoa, coffee, and wheat, across 27 participating countries. Finally, the
Global Wildlife Program (GWP)is a $230 million grant program launched in 2015 with projects across 32 countries in Asia, Africa, và Latin America & the Caribbean. The program focuses on designing và implementing national strategies khổng lồ help countries combat illegal wildlife trafficking, secure wildlife habitats, & promote wildlife-based economies.

The International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime (ICCWC)launched in 2010 brings together
CITES Secretariat,World Customs Organizationand
UNODCwith the World ngân hàng in a coordinated global response khổng lồ wildlife crime. ICCWC helps strengthen national law enforcement và criminal justice systems and international coordination in tư vấn of sustainable development. The Consortium has developed a
Wildlife & Forest Crime Analytic Toolkitand
Indicator Frameworkto assess và strengthen wildlife crime responses & prevention strategies. Within ICCWC, the World bank provides technical assistance on anti-money laundering và prevention of illicit financial flows và has a strategic role by being able to elevate the environmental và wildlife crime agenda with key stakeholders at a national level.

The WBG has actively supported the establishment of the
Taskforce on Nature-related Disclosures (TNFD),tasked with developing a framework to lớn help the financial & private sector understand their risks và impacts on nature, ultimately helping promote more green finance.

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